Category: Green Energy


AlGore’s Warmist Origins Explained

 

 

 

Published on Mar 12, 2014

” A great scientist named Roger Revelle had Al Gore in his class at Harvard and the Global Warming campaign was born. Revelle tried to calm things down years later, but Gore said Revelle was Senile and refused to debate. John Coleman documents the entire story and shows how our tax dollars are perpetuating the Global Warming alarmist campaign even though temperatures have not risen in years and years.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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How Unheralded Wood Stoves Could Save The World

 

 

 

” Imagine two homeowners: One is a wealthy investor building a vacation house near Lake Tahoe in California. The other owns a middle-class home outside Burlington, Vt. Both are interested in keeping their energy costs under control—and helping the environment while they’re at it. The owner of the Tahoe ski palace installs an expensive solar-energy system to power his lights and appliances, covering his roof with photovoltaic panels. (He uses natural gas for heat.) The Vermonter invests in a clean-burning wood-pellet stove, cutting his consumption of heating oil by about 80 percent. 

  Our Tahoe homeowner enjoys the virtuous glow of being seen as an alternative-energy pioneer. He also enjoys something else: Under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, he is entitled to a tax credit equal to 30 percent of the cost of his system, including installation. Let’s say Mr. Tahoe installed a 6-kilowatt PV system at a cost of about $23,000. His federal tax credit works out to nearly $7000, and the state of California kicks in additional incentives. 

  Our Vermont homeowner isn’t so lucky. The IRS offers only a 10 percent credit on biomass heating systems like his stove. The credit doesn’t include installation costs, and the total is capped at $300. That’s a grudging level of support—yet the pellet stove may be doing more than the solar array to help the environment

  The systems are tough to compare: It’s electricity versus heat, and removing reliance on a distant power plant rather than an oil burner in the basement. But to get a rough idea, we can calculate the energy savings from both systems using British thermal units, or Btu. The Vermont homeowner’s system saves about 575 gallons of oil yearly, which is the equivalent of 79 million Btu. The Tahoe system might produce close to 9000 kilowatt-hours of electricity a year—about 30 million Btu.”

 

Read the rest and see how , once again , the Obama Science is anything but “settled” .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As Obama Whined About Drought In California, The Real Story Comes Out

 

 

 

 

” I mentioned Saturday that Obama took a long fossil fueled plane trip all the way to Fresno, California to complain about “climate change” and announce a $1 billion “climate change” slush fund. Part of the trip was to whine about the drought in California. His “science” adviser, John Holdren ( a believer in Malthusian prophesy), even went so far as to say that it wasn’t about reservoirs (which some were calling to be built), but about the lack of water to fill the reservoirs. Actually, he’s half right, and there’s a reason for that

(IBD) President Obama visited California’s drought-hit Central Valley Friday, offering handouts and blaming global warming. But the state’s water shortage is due to the left’s refusal to deal with the state’s water needs.

  The one thing that will mitigate droughts in California — a permanent feature of the state — is to restore the water flow from California’s water-heavy north to farmers in the central and south. That’s just what House Bill 3964, which passed by a 229-191 vote last week, does.

  But Obama’s plan is not to get that worthy bill through the Senate (where Democrats are holding it up) but to shovel pork to environmental activists and their victims, insultingly offering out-of-work farmers a “summer meal plan” in his package.

What happened?

  Environmental special interests managed to dismantle the system by diverting water meant for farms to pet projects, such as saving delta smelt, a baitfish. That move forced the flushing of 3 million acre-feet of water originally slated for the Central Valley into the ocean over the past five years.

  California Democrats refused to allow reservoirs and water containment facilities to be built. Droughts are nothing new to California. Some droughts were shown to last 200 years. Much of this can be explained by the geography of California. The hills, mountains, ocean temperatures, winds, and weather patterns all contribute. Much of the Los Angeles are would be extremely dry without the water that is brought in.”

 

 

    As with all things politics , follow the money .  Cui bono ?  Who profits ? As with all things environmental and otherwise regarding our current crop of legislators the proposed solution to our “emergency of the day” will line someone’s pockets . When you find out who then you find out the true motives … which is of course typically profit , protestations of the Left non-withstanding .

Read more at Pirates Cove

 

 

 

 

 

 

The $2.2 Billion Bird-Scorching Solar Project

 

 

 

 

 

” A giant solar-power project officially opening this week in the California desert is the first of its kind, and may be among the last, in part because of growing evidence that the technology it uses is killing birds.

  U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz is scheduled to speak Thursday at an opening ceremony for the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating Station, which received a $1.6 billion federal loan guarantee.

  The $2.2 billion solar farm, which spans over five square miles of federal land southwest of Las Vegas, includes three towers as tall as 40-story buildings. Nearly 350,000 mirrors, each the size of a garage door, reflect sunlight onto boilers atop the towers, creating steam that drives power generators.

  The owners of the project— NRG Energy Inc.,  Google Inc. and BrightSource Energy Inc., the company that developed the “tower power” solar technology—call the plant a major feat of engineering that can light up about 140,000 homes a year.”

 

 

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction … surprise , surprise … nothing is without cost .

 

WSJ has more

 

 

 

 

 

 

Secretary Of State Kerry Lashes Out At Climate Change Skeptics

 

 

” U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry on Sunday called climate change perhaps the world’s “most fearsome” destructive weapon and mocked those who deny its existence or question its causes, comparing them to people who insist the Earth is flat.

  In a speech to Indonesian students, civic leaders and government officials, Kerry tore into climate change skeptics. He accused them of using shoddy science and scientists to delay steps needed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases at the risk of imperiling the planet.”

 

Here’s your shoddy science Senator .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Obama’s New Clean Coal Rules Will Increase Energy Costs By 70%-80%

 

 

 

    On this one we cannot say we weren’t warned … “… under my plan energy prices will necessarily skyrocket … because I’m capping greenhouse gases … “

 

    Beware of the falling porcine feces ,  he told the truth , so pigs can fly .

Yet UN Recommends Another $147B Be Spent On Warming

 

 

 

 

” The United Nations estimates it would cost $30 billion a year to end world hunger. That sounds like a lot, but the world spent more than ten times that amount in 2012 on global warming mitigation, according to a recent Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) study.

  And the UN says the world needs to spend even more on global warming mitigation. Much more.

  According to the Reuters analysis of the Summary for Policymakers of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report, due to be released this April, the UN is calling on the world to invest an extra $147 billion a year in wind, solar, and nuclear power from 2010 to 2029. If we add that figure to CPI’s measure, the UN wants us to spend approximately $506 billion a year to mitigate global warming.”

 

     Obviously it’s all about the benjamins and little to do with solving problems . If thirty billion would solve a real , known , provable problem like hunger , yet the UN would rather have us spend nearly seventeen times that on an issue who’s legitimacy is questionable then you just know it because someone(s) will get much richer off the climate change spending than could do so by feeding the hungry . 

 

” According to the UN, this amount would end world hunger for nearly 20 years.

  It’s important to ask what sort of return we can expect from these investments. As the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change reports, the human effect on climate “is likely to be small relative to natural variability, and whatever small warming is likely to occur will produce benefits as well as costs.” “

 

   Actually , we know the sort of return we will get for our “investment” … nada , zip , zilch … Some fat-cat cronies of Mr Carbon-Tax , the Almighty AlGore would undoubtably see a handsome return while the average citizen just gets lighter in the wallet .

 

Continued here

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EPA’s Wood-Burning Stove Ban Has Chilling Consequences For Many Rural People

 

 

 

 

” It seems that even wood isn’t green or renewable enough anymore.  The EPA has recently banned the production and sale of 80 percent of America’s current wood-burning stoves, the oldest heating method known to mankind and mainstay of rural homes and many of our nation’s poorest residents. The agency’s stringent one-size-fits-all rules apply equally to heavily air-polluted cities and far cleaner plus typically colder off-grid wilderness areas such as large regions of Alaska and the American West.

  While EPA’s most recent regulations aren’t altogether new, their impacts will nonetheless be severe.  Whereas restrictions had previously banned wood-burning stoves that didn’t limit fine airborne particulate emissions to 15 micrograms per cubic meter of air, the change will impose a maximum 12 microgram limit. To put this amount in context, EPA estimates that secondhand tobacco smoke in a closed car can expose a person to 3,000-4,000 micrograms of particulates per cubic meter.

  Most wood stoves that warm cabin and home residents from coast-to-coast can’t meet that standard. Older stoves that don’t cannot be traded in for updated types, but instead must be rendered inoperable, destroyed, or recycled as scrap metal.

 

    How soon before we lose our fireplaces ? And what of the summer tradition of bonfires and campfires ? When will they come for our B-B-Q grills ?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chevy Volt Replacement Battery Cost Varies Wildly, Up To $34,000

 

 

 

 

” There’s a growing hubbub in the plug-in vehicle community over what looks like some ridiculously cheap replacement batteries for the Chevrolet Volt going up for sale. GM Parts Online, for example, is selling a replacement Volt battery with an MSRP of $2,994.64 but, with an online discount, the price comes down to $2,305.88. For the 16-kWh pack in the 2012 Volt, that comes to a very low $144.11 per kilowatt hour (kWH). But is it a real deal? How can it be, when a Chevy dealer may quote you a price of up to $34,000 to replace the pack?

  Battery packs in alternative propulsion vehicles are usually priced by the kWh and, historically, they’ve been thought to be in the range of $500-per-kWh for OEM offerings. Since automakers are understandably secretive about their costs, we still don’t know what the real number is today, but we do know it varies by automaker. Tesla, for example, has said it pays less than $200-per-kWH at the cell level but, of course, a constructed pack would be more. Whatever is going on, li-ion battery prices are trending downward.

  So, $144.11 certainly sounds great, but what’s the story here? Kevin Kelly, manager of electrification technology communications for General Motors, reminded AutoblogGreen that GM Parts Online is not the official GM parts website and that, “the costs indicated on the site are not what we would charge our dealers or owners for a replacement battery. There would be no cost to the Volt owner if their battery needs replacement or repair while the battery is under the eight year/100,000 mile limited warranty coverage provided by Chevrolet.”

 

HT/Instapundit

 

 

 

 

 

 

Obama, Friends Explain On Facebook That All This Cold Really Means Global Warming!

 

 

Global-Weirding-Fake-FB

 

 

Global warming as seen by our “Dear Leader” and buddies … LOL

 

 

 

Data Shows Dramatically Less, Not More, Extreme Weather In 2013

 

 

” The problem is that 2013 is proving to be among the years with the fewest number of tornados on record, according to data compiled by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Storm Prediction Center in Norman, Okla.

  According to an Oct. 18 SI analysis, “the good news is that weather-related disasters in the U.S. are all way down this year, compared to recent years, and, in some cases, down to historically low levels.”

  There were fewer wildfires in 2013, as well as fewer days with 100 degree or higher temperatures and fewer hurricanes.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A MANUFACTURER FOUND A LOOPHOLE AROUND THAT INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULB BAN

” With millions of people still supporting the use of incandescent bulbs, Birnbaum found a loophole in the Energy Independence and Security Act. The ban applies to general service incandescent light bulbs but not rough service incandescents.

  While frequently used in automobiles, subway systems and other applications that require a heavy-duty, vibration-resistant bulb, rough service bulbs can still be used in a general application, according to Birnbaum.

  The website Bulbs.com breaks it down this way: “Rough service lamps function identically to regular incandescent lamps, but generally have additional wire within the glass enclosure that serves to protect and support the filament.” [emphasis added]

  Birnbaum’s company was one of two awarded a license to produce these bulbs in the country. After designing a bulb to meet the new specifications for rough service bulbs established in the law, the American-made Newcandescent was born.”

Scientists Increasingly Moving To Global Cooling Consensus

 

 

 

” Critics of those who claim that man-made global warming is a serious threat to the planet and settled science frequently point to the fickleness of scientists on the issue, noting that in the 60s and 70s scientists were warning of just the opposite. It now appears the critic’s claims may have merit as a new consensus is beginning to once again return to the global cooling model.

  Adherents of man-made global warming have supported the issue in a way akin to that of religious zealots, even to the point of attempting to cover up evidence that runs contrary to their beliefs or portrays it in a negative light.”

 

   Face it , the data that is available regarding climate change on Earth is just not comprehensive enough for the scientific community to be handing down pronouncements of catastrophic climate change . 

 

” Global warming has been blamed for every recent catastrophe including wildfires in America even when they have been started by human activity, Hurricane Sandy, and even for the recent rash of cold spells that have descended upon much of the world.”

 

 The fact is that the thousands of years of man and his “destructive” policies are but a pimple on the butt of Earth history and it is the height of arrogance to assume that in such a short period of history we could so drastically effect the Earth .

 

However, even in the midst of their support for the theory, they appear to have acknowledged there are serious issues with claiming that record cold winters are the result of global warming. In the 1990s, they frequently made calls for governments to take steps to issue regulations to curtail “global warming.” However, they now generally do not use the phrase any longer, instead calling on combating “climate change.” “

    That arrogance , along with political pressure ,has generated a climate in the scientific community that refuses to allow anyone to be honest enough to admit that “we just don’t know” . Of course an admission of that frankness and honesty would not impress the grant givers and that is AGW science is really all about … job security , that and Statism . 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Pulling The Plug On Fisker

 

 

 

 

” The Energy Department has sold off its $192 million loan guarantee to Fisker Automotive to Chinese billionaire Richard Li for $25 million — the biggest taxpayer loss on a green loan since the failure of Solyndra.

  The Energy Department will announce the “selling of the promissory note” to Hybrid Tech, which is owned by Chinese billionaire Richard Li, according to sources familiar with the sale. The DOE sold the loan to Li for $25 million after lending the financially troubled green automaker a total of $192 million since 2009. …

  Including the $25 million loan sale, the DOE has recovered only $53 million of the original $192 million disbursed — netting taxpayers a $139 million loss.”

 

   Obama’s actions with the “green tech” industries , bribes , subsidies , grants , loans and kickbacks would have been enough all by themselves to have impeached any other president , Republican at least , if we had a truly independent media . The depths of media depravity and dishonesty over the past six years in support of this shameful regime is difficult to grasp . 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Environmental Causes Suffer Defeats Across The Country

 

 

” Environmental causes across the country saw defeat last night as voters from Maine to Colorado rejected anti-fossil fuel policies such as hydraulic fracturing restrictions and tar sands oil import bans.

Anti-fossil groups did see some victories on Tuesday night as three cities in Colorado passed restrictions on fracking and an Ohio city also voted to limit fracking. Other environmentalist attempts to harm the fossil fuel industry across the country, however, were stymied.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Obama Uses Executive Order In Sweeping Takeover Of Nation’s

Climate Change Policies

 

 

 

” Through the stroke of a pen, President Obama on Friday used his executive powers to elevate and take control of climate change policies in an attempt to streamline sustainability initiatives – and potentially skirt legislative oversight and push a federal agenda on states.

The executive order establishes a task force of state and local officials to advise the administration on how to respond to severe storms, wildfires, droughts and other potential impacts of climate change. The task force includes governors of seven states — all Democrats — and the Republican governor of Guam, a U.S. territory. Fourteen mayors and two other local leaders also will serve on the task force.

All but three of those appointed are Democrats. The task force will look at federal money spent on roads, bridges, flood control and other projects. It ultimately will recommend how structures can be made more resilient to the effects of climate change, such as rising sea levels and warming temperatures.”

 

    Note that ALL of his appointees are politicians , and mostly Democratic ones at that , and not a scientist or expert among them . Surely this is the way to come up with accurate , unbiased , effective policy on such a contentious issue as “global warming”, er , climate change .

 

” The task force includes Govs. Jerry Brown of California, Jay Inslee of Washington and Neil Abercrombie of Hawaii, as well as Delaware Gov. Jack Markell, Maryland Gov. Martin O’Malley, Vermont Gov. Peter Shumlin and Illinois Gov. Pat Quinn. The panel also includes several big-city mayors, including Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti, Philadelphia Mayor Michael Nutter and Houston Mayor Annise Parker. All three are Democrats.”

 

  Does anyone really suppose that any of these elected officials know a damn thing about the science of “climate change” ?

But then again the science is “settled” isn’t it ? At least in the eyes of the Kool-aid drinkers .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Wannabe Oppressed

 

 

 

 

 

” What do America’s college students want? They want to be oppressed. More precisely, a surprising number of students at America’s finest colleges and universities wish to appear as victims — to themselves, as well as to others — without the discomfort of actually experiencing victimization. Here is where global warming comes in. The secret appeal of campus climate activism lies in its ability to turn otherwise happy, healthy, and prosperous young people into an oppressed class, at least in their own imaginings. Climate activists say to the world, “I’ll save you.” Yet deep down they’re thinking, “Oppress me.”

In his important new book, The Fanaticism of the Apocalypse: Save the Earth, Punish Human Beings, French intellectual gadfly Pascal Bruckner does the most thorough job yet of explaining the climate movement as a secular religion, an odd combination of deformed Christianity and reconstructed Marxism. (You can find Bruckner’s excellent article based on the book here.) Bruckner describes a historical process wherein “the long list of emblematic victims — Jews, blacks, slaves, proletarians, colonized peoples — was replaced, little by little, with the Planet.” The planet, says Bruckner, “has become the new proletariat that must be saved from exploitation.”

But why? Bruckner finds it odd that a “mood of catastrophe” should prevail in the West, the most well-off part of the world. The reason, I think, is that the only way to turn the prosperous into victims is to threaten the very existence of a world they otherwise command.

And why should the privileged wish to become victims? To alleviate guilt and to appropriate the victim’s superior prestige.”

 

 

 

   Read the entire piece by Stanley Kurtz for a much better understanding of the victim mentality driving the “Climate Change” agenda . It is time well spent .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bad News For Wind Energy

 

 

 

” It’s generally been  recognized that using wind to generate electricity is inefficient, costly, and unreliable.

Now the news is getting out that it’s even worse than previously thought.

The report, The Performance of Wind Farms in the United Kingdom and Denmark, issued by the Renewable Energy Foundation in London, established that capacity factors for on-shore wind farms decline from 24% in the first year of operation to 15% in year ten, and 11% in year 15.

These results are amazing, in that the literature usually indicates a consistent capacity factor of 30%, which is what financial projections are typically based on.

The report holds even worse news for off-shore wind farms.

In Denmark, output declined from 40% in the first year of operation to less than 15% in year 10.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Batteries To Become A Thing Of The Past

 

 

 

 

” Disposable and rechargeable batteries that power tens of millions of portable electronics could become obsolete over the coming decades as new technologies come to market that can convert ambient energy into usable electric power, new research shows.

The concept, known as “energy harvesting” (EH), is becoming more viable as technology firms bring products to market that can transform electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical energy sources into power that can be stored and used.

“In the near future, EH technology will power an increasing number of consumer and industrial products that are untethered or need to become disconnected from electrical outlets,” researchers with Navigant Energy said in a recent published report on the technology. Moreover, EH systems “offer an inexpensive and compact way to power portable electrical devices that in many cases rely heavily on batteries.” ” 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meet Volkswagen’s XL1

 

 

 

 

” The Volkswagen XL1, which gets the equivalent of 209 miles per gallon, debuted this morning in Chattanooga, Tenn.

Today the world’s most fuel-efficient car, the Volkswagen XL1, made its first U.S. appearance at the 23rd Annual Society of Environmental Journalists conference in Chattanooga, Tennessee. The vehicle is the third-generation model in the company’s strategy to build a 1-liter car, but unlike the two previous prototypes that premiered in 2002 and 2009, the XL1 is the first available for consumer purchase.

The vehicle is currently considered a limited edition, with only 250 cars produced in Germany to gauge consumer interest. The plug-in hybrid has the look of a sports car and features a pair of scissor doors. It comes equipped with a 35kW two-cylinder Turbocharged Direct Injection engine, 27-horsepower electric motor, a seven-speed Dual-Shift Gearbox dual-clutch automatic transmission, and a lithium-ion battery. Thanks to their facility in Chattanooga, Tenn., Volkswagen holds the title for the first and only car factory worldwide with a LEED Platinum certification. “

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

‘The Latest IPCC Report Has Truly Sunk To Level Of Hilarious Incoherence’

 

Climate Depot Round Up: UN IPCC Exhumes, Brings Climate Catastrophe Back From The Grave…Politicians, Activists Dancing Like It’s 2007!

 

 

” I think that the latest IPCC report has truly sunk to level of hilarious incoherence.  They are proclaiming increased confidence in their models as the discrepancies between their models and observations increase.

Their excuse for the absence of warming over the past 17 years is that the heat is hiding in the deep ocean.  However, this is simply an admission that the models fail to simulate the exchanges of heat between the surface layers and the deeper oceans.  However, it is this heat transport that plays a major role in natural internal variability of climate, and the IPCC assertions that observed warming can be attributed to man depend crucially on their assertion that these models accurately simulate natural internal variability.  Thus, they now, somewhat obscurely, admit that their crucial assumption was totally unjustified. “

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

iPhone Case Lets You Charge Your Device by Hand

 

 

 

 

” A new Kickstarter campaign wants to put the power of charge in the palm of your hand.

The Mipwr Dynamo is an iPhone case with two functions: It acts as both a protective shield and a charger for your phone — with no plugging in required.

When your phone’s battery begins to drain, you can easily pop out the concealed hand crank from the side of the case and begin to power it back up. As you crank the lever, a charge is generated.

The Mipwr Dynamo works through electromagnetic induction, which is the process of harnessing electricity using a magnetic field. A magnet inside the case spins as you crank the handle, creating energy that is transferred into voltage to juice up your phone’s battery.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“The Science Is Over … Not”

 

 

” “The science is over”. Remember that line? There was a time when that angry and arrogant (not to say delusional) mantra about climate change was something you couldn’t get away from. It was complemented with the charge that anyone questioning the scientific “consensus” was a “denier” — a word more commonly used in the wider political discourse about those twisted individuals and groups that refuse to accept the historical reality of the Nazi Holocaust against the Jews.

If the charge of flat-headed anti-scientific stupidity coupled with neo-Nazi-type tendencies didn’t suffice to close down the debate, the sceptic must (it was, and continues to be, alleged) be in the pay of the oil and coal lobby. Honest disagreement, most particularly about the certainty of it all, was ruled out of court.

The IPCC is arguing that they are 95 percent certain that the planet is warming due to man-made activities. But, in scientific terms, 95 percent is no more a proof than 19.5 percent or 9.5 percent. It still means you can’t prove it.

Telling people that the “science is over” when it manifestly wasn’t, has only turned people off from doing that.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UN REPORT TAKES THE STEAM OUT OF “CLIMATE CHANGE”

 

 

 

 

” The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change recently released a report that doesn’t find much evidence of “climate change” or “global warming” based on human activity, but nevertheless rushes to assure readers that the problem is still serious.  Not so fast, says the Heartland Institute and the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change it supports:

“Whereas the reports of the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warn of a dangerous human effect on climate, NIPCC concludes the human effect is likely to be small relative to natural variability, and whatever small warming is likely to occur will produce benefits as well as costs,” the non-governmental panel announced, rolling out a hefty report with a succinct “summary for policymakers” to back up their claim.

In essence, the NIPCC is calling shenanigans on the United Nations panel, accusing them of “departing from proper scientific methodology.”

Global climate models produce meaningful results only if we assume we already know perfectly how the global climate works, and most climate scientists say we do not (Bray and von Storch, 2010). Moreover, it is widely recognized that climate models are not designed to produce predictions of future climate but rather what-if projections of many alternative possible futures (Trenberth, 2009). Postulates, commonly defined as “something suggested or assumed as true as the basis for reasoning, discussion, or belief,” can stimulate relevant observations or experiments but more often are merely assertions that are difficult or impossible to test (Kahneman, 2011). Observations in science are useful primarily to falsify hypotheses and cannot prove one is correct (Popper, 1965, p. vii).”

 

 

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