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Category: Science


NASA’s New 10-Engine Drone Is Half Chopper, Half Plane

 

 

 

” Planes and helicopters have their strengths and weaknesses. Planes are fast and can carry a lot of stuff a long way, while helicopters are slow but they don’t need enormous runways and they’re extremely maneuverable. So naturally, people want to combine them.

  That’s why a team at NASA’s Langley Research Center is developing a drone that’s a hybrid of the two.

  The GL-10 Greased Lightning is a ten-engine, battery-powered prototype with a ten-foot wingspan that can change its shape midair to fly either horizontally or vertically. This month, NASA announced it recently took off vertically and, for the first time, successfully rotated its wings to transition from “helicopter” mode to standard “wingborne” flight.

  The GL-10 is a relative of the V-22 Osprey, the VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) aircraft developed in the 1980s for the US Air Force and Marines. It’s a tiltrotor design: The engines rotate to propel the aircraft either up and down (like a helicopter), or forward (like a propeller-driven plane). The Osprey can take off and land from the deck of a carrier or from a field in the middle of the jungle, instead of from a lengthy runway. It can haul 32 troops or 20,000 pounds of internal cargo up to 2,200 miles. It’s very handy.”

 

Read more at Wired

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Peering Inside Yellowstone’s Supervolcano

 

 

 

” A giant reservoir of magma and hot rock beneath the Yellowstone supervolcano has been found and imaged. The newly found reservoir lies 12-28 miles below the surface, and is four-and-a-half times larger than the shallower, hot melted rock zone that powers current Yellowstone geysers and caused the caldera’s last eruption some 70,000 years ago.

  The volume of the newly imaged, deeper reservoir is a whopping 11,000 cubic-miles (46,000 cubic kilometers), which is about the volume of Long Island with 9 miles of hot rock piled on it, or 300 Lake Tahoes. The discovery begins to fill in a gray area about how Yellowstone connects to a far deeper plume of heat rising up from the Earth’s mantle.

“ It’s existence has been suspected for a while,” said University of Utah geophysicist Hsin-Hua Huang of the newly imaged hot reservoir. Huang is the lead author of a paper announcing the discovery in the Thursday issue of the journal ScienceExpress.”

 

 

Discovery.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Real Side Effect Of A Gluten-Free Diet: Scientific Illiteracy

 

 

GLUTEN LIE

 

 

 

” Walk into any grocery store or coffee shop and you’ll find gluten-free muffins, gluten-free chips, and gluten-free bread. Gluten has replaced fat as the ingredient we love to shun.

  And yet, scientists can’t find any good evidence to support this fad. Gluten is a protein composite that gives shape to grains like wheat, rye, and barley. And it’s true that a very small fraction of people have celiac disease, a real medical condition that causes their bodies to violently reject gluten. But that’s only a small fraction of people, and it’s not enough to explain the craze. The rest of us are going gluten-free without any real scientific basis for doing so.

  It’s exactly because the gluten-free diet has surged in popularity recently, despite the science, that Alan Jay Levinovitz, a professor of philosophy and religion at James Madison University, became fascinated by it. I talked to him about his new book, The Gluten Lie, to better understand why we’ve gone against this grain to the tune of more than $10 billion this year. “

 

Read more

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Researchers Believe A Biological Revolution Enabling Humans To Experience Everlasting Youthfulness Is Coming

 

 

 

 

 

 

” It is likely the first person who will live to be 1,000 years old is already alive today.

  This is according to a growing regiment of researchers who believe a biological revolution enabling humans to experience everlasting youthfulness is just around the corner.

  At the epicentre of the research is Aubrey de Grey — a Cambridge gerontologist and co-founder or the California-based Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence(SENS) Research Foundation.

“ The first thing I want to do is get rid of the use of this word immortality, because it’s enormously damaging, it is not just wrong, it is damaging,” he told Motherboard.

“ It means zero risk of death from any cause — whereas I just work on one particular cause of death, namely aging.” “

 

Read more

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Night Vision Eyedrops Allow Vision Of Up To 50m In Darkness

 

 

 

 

 

 

” It might sound like something straight out of Q’s laboratory or the latest Marvel film but a group of scientists in California have successfully created eye drops that temporarily enable night vision.

Science for the Masses, an independent “citizen science” organisation that operates from the city of Tehacapi, theorised that Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a natural molecule that can be created from algae and other green plants, could enhance eyesight in dark environments.

  The molecule is found in some deep sea fish, forms the basis of some cancer therapies and has been previously prescribed intravenously for night blindness.

Jeff Tibbets, the lab’s medical officer, said: “There are a fair amount of papers talking about having injected it in models like rats and it’s been used intravenously since the 60s as treatments for different cancers. After doing the research, you have to take the next step.”

  The next step was to moisten the eyes of biochemical researcher and willing guinea pig Gabriel Licina’s eyes with 50 microlitres of Ce6.

  The effect was apparently almost instantaneous and, after an hour, he was able to distinguish shapes from 10 metres away in the dark and soon at even greater distances.”

 

Read the whole story at the Independent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Finally, A Gif To Teach You How A Gun Silencer Works

 

 

 

 

 

” The repetitive power of the gif makes it a perfect way to learn how simple machines work. We saw that with these awesome gifs that break down the mechanics of engines and handguns, and we see it again here with the silencer.

  SilencerCo posted this big infographic on its site, explaining not only how the piece suppresses the noise of gunfire but also just how many silencers there are around the country and the world.”

 

Popular Mechanics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why I Am A Climate Change Skeptic

 

 

 

 

 

 

” I am skeptical humans are the main cause of climate change and that it will be catastrophic in the near future. There is no scientific proof of this hypothesis, yet we are told “the debate is over” and “the science is settled.”

  My skepticism begins with the believers’ certainty they can predict the global climate with a computer model. The entire basis for the doomsday climate change scenario is the hypothesis increased atmospheric carbon dioxide due to fossil fuel emissions will heat the Earth to unlivable temperatures.”

 

 

 

 

” In fact, the Earth has been warming very gradually for 300 years, since the Little Ice Age ended, long before heavy use of fossil fuels. Prior to the Little Ice Age, during the Medieval Warm Period, Vikings colonized Greenland and Newfoundland, when it was warmer there than today. And during Roman times, it was warmer, long before fossil fuels revolutionized civilization.

  The idea it would be catastrophic if carbon dioxide were to increase and average global temperature were to rise a few degrees is preposterous.”

 

 

Lest readers doubt the writer’s credentials , the editors thoughtfully provide a brief biography of Dr Moore:

 

 

[Editor’s Note: Patrick Moore, Ph.D., has been a leader in international environmentalism for more than 40 years. He cofounded Greenpeace and currently serves as chair of Allow Golden Rice. Moore received the 2014 Speaks Truth to Power Award at the Ninth International Conference on Climate Change, July 8, in Las Vegas. Watch his presentation about this piece at the video player to the left.] (see above)

 

 

Read more on Dr Moore’s epiphany in his own words at the Heartland Institute

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Incredible New 3D Printing Technique Looks Like Sci-Fi

 

 

 

 

 

” A new innovation by Carbon3D, unveiled Monday at the TED2015 conference, could finally move 3D printing out of the hobby shop and onto every factory floor.

  Imagine you’re in an emergency room with a blood vessel blockage. To save your life, a surgeon will first insert a tube, and carefully guide it through the clog. Then she might insert a stent, a piece metal or fabric mesh, to keep the vessel open. But that piece of hardware isn’t made to fit your body. Carbon3D can make one that does.

” The idea that you could produce a biodegradable stent that takes in your own anatomy and the tributaries of your blood vessels while you’re on the catheter table in an emergency room — that’s an amazing new future that is now in reach,” said Joseph DeSimone, CEO and co-founder of Carbon3D and a chemistry professor at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University.

  It all started in Japan with a tiny house that took 4.5 hours to build. It was made of plastic and measured 2.5 inches across and 2 inches high and had “partitions, furniture, and stairs.” It was one of the first 3D printed items to ever exist. That was 1981.”

 

 

 

   Popular Mechanics brings the news of revolution in the micro-printing area of additive manufacturing while from the more macro side of the technology comes news of cheap 3D printed homes for the third world

 

 

 

 

 

 

” Back in July, the WASPProject unveiled to us their plans to 3D print homes in 3rd world countries using nothing but a 3D printer and clay made from native soil. The idea is a tremendous one, one which could be extraordinarily groundbreaking when it comes to creating shelter for poverty stricken nations.”

 

 

waspextruder2

 

 

” Clay is abundant, and these 3D printers are quite affordable compared to other machines on the market. Providing a single 3D printer to small communities where there is little to no structurally sound housing, could provide for a solution to one of the world’s biggest problems.  The fabrication of multiple homes in a short amount of time, is exactly what WASP is hoping to accomplish.”

 

 

Read all about the WASPProject here and here

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solar Eclipse ‘Will Be Memorable’ – But Beware

 

 

Toatal Eclipse 3:20:15

 

 

 

” A near-total solar eclipse will occur in the skies above Britain this week, prompting warnings about the dangers of watching the spectacle without taking precautions.

  The eclipse will begin around 8.30am on Friday and last for two hours as the moon moves in front of the Sun. The proportion of the Sun covered by the moon will increase the further north you are.

  In London, 84% of the Sun will be covered, while in Edinburgh the proportion is 93%. The last solar eclipse of such significance took place in August 1999, when a total eclipse occurred.”

 

Sky News

 

Links to much more on the impending solar eclipse:

 

March 20, 2015 — Total Solar Eclipse

Total Solar Eclipse 20 March 2015

Total Solar Eclipse of 2015 Mar 20 – NASA Eclipse Web Site

Solar Eclipse 20 March – The Science Geek

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why Pi Matters

 

 

 

 

 

 

” Every March 14th, mathematicians like me are prodded out of our burrows like Punxsutawney Phil on Groundhog Day, blinking and bewildered by all the fuss. Yes, it’s Pi Day again. And not just any Pi Day. They’re calling this the Pi Day of the century: 3.14.15. Pi to five digits. A once-in-a-lifetime thing.

  I’m dreading it. No hope of solving any equations that day, what with the pie-eating contests, the bickering over the merits of pi versus tau (pi times two), and the throwdowns over who can recite more digits of pi. Just stay off the streets at 9:26:53, when the time will approximate pi to ten places: 3.141592653. “

 

 

 

 

” Pi does deserve a celebration, but for reasons that are rarely mentioned. In high school, we all learned that pi is about circles. Pi is the ratio of a circle’s circumference (the distance around the circle, represented by the letter C) to its diameter (the distance across the circle at its widest point, represented by the letter d). That ratio, which is about 3.14, also appears in the formula for the area inside the circle, A = πr2, where π is the Greek letter “pi” and r is the circle’s radius (the distance from center to rim). We memorized these and similar formulas for the S.A.T.s and then never again used them, unless we happened to go into a technical field, or until our own kids took geometry.”

 

Read more at the New Yorker

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How Small Is Planet Earth !

 

 

 

Here is a video that very deftly illustrates the insignificance of man .

Researchers Capture First Ever Image Of Light As Wave And Particle

 

 

 

 

” Quantum mechanics tells us that light can behave simultaneously as a particle or a wave. However, there has never been an experiment able to capture both natures of light at the same time; the closest we have come is seeing either wave or particle, but always at different times. Taking a radically different experimental approach, EPFL scientists have now been able to take the first ever snapshot of light behaving both as a wave and as a particle. The breakthrough work is published in Nature Communications.”

 

 

 

© Fabrizio Carbone/EPFL

 

 

 

” When UV light hits a metal surface, it causes an emission of electrons. Albert Einstein explained this “photoelectric” effect by proposing that light – thought to only be a wave – is also a stream of particles. Even though a variety of experiments have successfully observed both the particle- and wave-like behaviors of light, they have never been able to observe both at the same time.

  A research team led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL has now carried out an experiment with a clever twist: using electrons to image light. The researchers have captured, for the first time ever, a single snapshot of light behaving simultaneously as both a wave and a stream of particles particle.”

 

 

Read more on this amazing accomplishment at Red Orbit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient ‘Lost City’ Home To A Vanished Civilisation Found Deep In Jungles Of Honduras

 

 

 

 

 

 

” The jungle-choked remains of a “lost city”, abandoned by a mysterious civilization several centuries ago and long fabled for reports of its gold and “monkey children”, have been uncovered in the depths of the rainforests of Honduras.

  A team of American and Honduran archaeologists, aided by the bushcraft and survival skills of former British SAS soldiers, has just emerged from one of the most remote locations on Earth with news of their stunning discovery.

  The expedition was seeking the site of the legendary “White City”, also known as the “City of the Monkey God”, a goal for Western explorers since the days of the Spanish conquistadores in the 16th century.

  The city, believed to be one of many lost in the Mosquitia jungle, was home to an unknown people that thrived a thousand years ago but then vanished without trace – until now.

  Unlike the Maya, so little is known of this pre-Columbian culture that it does not even have a name.”

 

 

The Telegraph has the complete story

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Villarrica Chile Volcano Eruption Video Footage

 

 

 

 

 

Published on Mar 3, 2015

” Villarrica Volcano in Chile has erupted causing 3300 local people to flee for their lives. Here is the video footage of that eruption.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Snow For All 50 States Forecast In Next 7 Days

 

GFS total snowfall forecast for the 7 days ending Friday morning, March 6, 2015.

 

 

” The unseasonable cold is expected to continue over much of the U.S., with some interruptions, and the latest GFS model forecast shows some snow for portions of all 50 states in the next seven days. (Graphic courtesy of Weatherbell.com, click for full-size). “

 

Read more from Dr Roy Spencer PhD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Young Black Hole Had Monstrous Growth Spurt

 

 

 

 

 

 

” A black hole that grew to gargantuan size in the Universe’s first billion years is by far the largest yet spotted from such an early date, researchers have announced. The object, discovered by astronomers in 2013, is 12 billion times as massive as the Sun, and six times greater than its largest-known contemporaries. Its existence poses a challenge for theories of the evolution of black holes, stars and galaxies, astronomers say.

  Light from the black hole took 12.9 billion years to reach Earth, so astronomers see the object as it was 900 million years after the Big Bang. That “is actually a very short time” for a black hole to have grown so large, says astronomer Xue-Bing Wu of Peking University in Beijing. He led an international collaboration that describes the discovery in Nature.

  For its age, this black hole “is really much more massive than anything else we have seen so far”, says Christian Veillet, director of the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory in Tucson, Arizona.”

 

 

   Read more about this discovery that turns previous theories of the nature of black hole growth on it’s head at Nature

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Record-Breaking 1Tbps Speed Achieved Over 5G Mobile Connection

 

 

” New Generations usually bring new base technologies, more network capacity for more data per user, and high speed Internet service, for which Internet service providers usually advertise. However, it is believed that the fifth generation (5G Technology) of mobile network will be beyond our thoughts.
  Security researchers from the University of Surrey have just achieved Record-Breaking data speeds during a recent test of 5G wireless data connections, achieving an incredible One Terabit per second (1Tbps) speed – many thousands of times faster than the existing 4G connections.
  After 4G, 5G is the next generation of mobile communication technology that aims at offering far greater capacity and be faster, more energy-efficient and more cost-effective than anything that has seen before. The boffins say 5G will be different – very different.
  The 5G test was conducted at the university’s 5G Innovation Centre (5GIC), which was founded by a host of telecoms industry partners including Huawei, Fujitsu, Samsung, Vodafone, EE, Aircom, BT, Telefonica, Aeroflex, BBC and Rohde & Schwarz.
 
  1Tbps of speeds are far faster than previously announced 5G tests – Samsung’s 7.5 gigabits per second (Gbps) record, which was 30 times faster than 4G LTE (Long-Term Evolution) speed and just less than 1% of the Surrey team’s speed.

” We have developed 10 more breakthrough technologies and one of them means we can exceed 1Tbps wirelessly. This is the same capacity as fiber optics but we are doing it wirelessly,” 5GIC director Prof Rahim Tafazolli told the news website V3.

  With 1Tbps, it is possible to download a file 100 times the size of a feature film in just three seconds. This incredible speed is over 65,000 times faster than the current 4G download speeds.
  The test was carried out over a distance of 100 meters using equipment built at the university. The head of the 5GIC said he planned to demonstrate the technology to the public in 2018. It’s believed that 5G could possibly be available in the UK by 2020.”
    Read more about the latest development in internet technology , possibly ready for prime time in 2020 … assuming the State hasn’t destroyed the web by then .
 ————

Conserving The Expedition Bases Left By The Antarctic Explorers

 

 

 

 

 

” The heroic era of Antarctic exploration (1895 – 1917) gave us great explorers including Sir Ernest Shackleton and Captain Robert Falcon Scott. In the 1950’s Sir Edmund Hillary made his mark on the great, white, continent.

  Five expedition parties built bases in the Ross Sea Region of Antarctica. The bases still stand in Antarctica today, crammed full of equipment, supplies and personal items. They are cared for, on behalf of the international community, by the Antarctic Heritage Trust.

  The Trust, based in New Zealand, is engaged in a long-term cold conservation project to protect the explorers’ legacy; the bases and the artifacts they left behind, for current and future generations. A project of this scale has never before been attempted in the polar regions.”

 

Thanks to the Antarctic Heritage Trust

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Chinese Buddha Statue Has A Mummy With Surprises Inside

 

 

 

 

” A 1,000-year-old Buddha statue from China has revealed some surprises, after being given a thorough medical exam, including CT scans and an endoscopy.

  The statue contains the mummified body of the Buddhist master Liuquan of the Chinese Meditation School, according to the Meander Medical Center in Amersfoort, Netherlands, where the statue was scanned.

  The Drents Museum in Assen, Netherlands, which exhibited the statue last year as part of its “Mummy World” exhibition, said the monk lived around the year 1,100.

  Some scans showing the mummy were taken prior to the exhibition, and a second round of scanning was done in September after the exhibition was taken down. “

 

Read more

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fireball Sightings With Booms Heard In Florida

 

 

 

 

 

” The American Meteor Society received more than 160 reports of bright fireball sightings clustered around Lake City, Florida over the weekend. Some witnesses were as far away as Georgia and South Carolina.

  Many reported feeling a sonic boom. AMS says over 15 of the reports described a “window rattling delayed boom.” Scientists believe a meteor caused the phenomenon, ending its flight about 30 miles west from Jacksonville.

  Last week, people in Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio reported seeing a fireball, which was captured on camera by NASA.You can report a fireball event here. “

 

Thanks to WFLA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Astronauts Conduct Spacewalk At ISS

 

 

Published on Feb 21, 2015

” NASA astronauts Butch Wilmore and Terry Virts completed the first of three spacewalks to run cable outside the International Space Station on Saturday. Carly Marsh reports.
Wall Street Journal
http://online.wsj.com/ “

 

 

 

Mars One Shortlist: The Top 10 Hopefuls

 

 

 

 

 

” Organizers of a proposed human settlement on Mars have unveiled the final 100 would-be colonizers. Here are the top 10 candidates .

  Selected from more than 200,000 applicants, the 50 men and 50 women are a step closer to taking part in the one-way mission. You can read more about  Britain’s five hopefuls here. The organizers ranked the candidates by points: here are the top 10.

 

Christian O Knudsen

Age: 34
From: Denmark

Christian says:

I believe the potential benefits of the Mars One project far outweigh the potential costs it may have to me, personally.

I believe these benefits will be scientific progress, which can benefit all of us on Earth, if you compare the Mars One mission to the moon landing, I think scientific progress, on a similar scale to what we experienced following that endeavour, is a reasonable expectation.

Another benefit of of the Mars One project, in my mind, is the motivation it ignites in other people, the surge in students choosing an education in the fields of science and engineering following the Apollo space programme is, in my opinion, a result of this motivation.

Furthermore, personally, and without any scientific backing, I believe that the increase in living standard these advances allow, will leave more space for individuals to expand the sphere of people they care for and will sacrifice for, beyond themselves, beyond their family and beyond their nationality.

As idealistic and altruistic as all this may sound, I’m also personally motivated by the desire to test limits, personal as well as technological.

Read Christian’s full profile here. “

 

 

Meet the other members of the shortlist at the Guardian 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NASA – 5 Year Time-Lapse Of The Sun

 

   Here is the time-lapse video comprised of one still shot of the sun taken every eight hours from June of 2010 until February 2015 as recorded by the Solar Dynamics Observatory …

 

 

 

Published on Feb 11, 2015

” The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) celebrates its 5th anniversary since it launched on February 11, 2010. This time-lapse video captures one frame every 8 hours starting when data became available in June 2010 and finishing February 8, 2015. The different colors represent the various wavelengths (sometimes blended, sometimes alone) in which SDO observes the sun.

For more about SDO, please visit http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/ “

 

 

 

 

    While this video pays tribute to the fifth anniversary of the SDO and provides some spectacular film closeups of the sun , solar flares , corona dances and more … simply awe-inspiring …

 

 

 

NASA – SDO: Year 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Published on Feb 11, 2015

” February 11, 2015 marks five years in space for NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, which provides incredibly detailed images of the whole sun 24 hours a day. Capturing an image more than once per second, SDO has provided an unprecedentedly clear picture of how massive explosions on the sun grow and erupt ever since its launch on Feb. 11, 2010. The imagery is also captivating, allowing one to watch the constant ballet of solar material through the sun’s atmosphere, the corona.

  In honor of SDO’s fifth anniversary, NASA has released a video showcasing highlights from the last five years of sun watching. Watch the movie to see giant clouds of solar material hurled out into space, the dance of giant loops hovering in the corona, and huge sunspots growing and shrinking on the sun’s surface.

  The imagery is an example of the kind of data that SDO provides to scientists. By watching the sun in different wavelengths – and therefore different temperatures – scientists can watch how material courses through the corona, which holds clues to what causes eruptions on the sun, what heats the sun’s atmosphere up to 1,000 times hotter than its surface, and why the sun’s magnetic fields are constantly on the move.

  Five years into its mission, SDO continues to send back tantalizing imagery to incite scientists’ curiosity. For example, in late 2014, SDO captured imagery of the largest sun spots seen since 1995 as well as a torrent of intense solar flares. Solar flares are bursts of light, energy and X-rays. They can occur by themselves or can be accompanied by what’s called a coronal mass ejection, or CME, in which a giant cloud of solar material erupts off the sun, achieves escape velocity and heads off into space. In this case, the sun produced only flares and no CMEs, which, while not unheard of, is somewhat unusual for flares of that size. Scientists are looking at that data now to see if they can determine what circumstances might have led to flares eruptions alone.

  Goddard built, operates and manages the SDO spacecraft for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington, D.C. SDO is the first mission of NASA’s Living with a Star Program. The program’s goal is to develop the scientific understanding necessary to address those aspects of the sun-Earth system that directly affect our lives and society.

  This video is public domain and can be downloaded at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/goto?11742 “

 

 

Enjoy !

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Fiddling With Temperature Data Is The Biggest Science Scandal Ever

 

Cowtan_global_land_digitized_endpoints_annotated_50pct

 

 

” When future generations look back on the global-warming scare of the past 30 years, nothing will shock them more than the extent to which the official temperature records – on which the entire panic ultimately rested – were systematically “adjusted” to show the Earth as having warmed much more than the actual data justified.

  Two weeks ago, under the headline “How we are being tricked by flawed data on global warming”, I wrote about Paul Homewood, who, on his Notalotofpeopleknowthat blog, had checked the published temperature graphs for three weather stations in Paraguay against the temperatures that had originally been recorded. In each instance, the actual trend of 60 years of data had been dramatically reversed, so that a cooling trend was changed to one that showed a marked warming.

  This was only the latest of many examples of a practice long recognized by expert observers around the world – one that raises an ever larger question mark over the entire official surface-temperature record.

  Following my last article, Homewood checked a swathe of other South American weather stations around the original three. In each case he found the same suspicious one-way “adjustments”. First these were made by the US government’s Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN). They were then amplified by two of the main official surface records, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (Giss) and the National Climate Data Center (NCDC), which use the warming trends to estimate temperatures across the vast regions of the Earth where no measurements are taken. Yet these are the very records on which scientists and politicians rely for their belief in “global warming”. “

 

The Telegraph has much more